The Complexities of Workplace Friendships: Balancing Productivity and Well-Being

Workplace friendships

While the sentiment “I am not here to make friends!” is often expressed in reality television, the debate over whether workplace friendships lead to positive outcomes remains an important consideration for organizations. While research has identified potential drawbacks, there are also compelling arguments for why workplace friendships can be beneficial.

Workplace friendships

The Bad and Ugly of Workplace Friendship

Much of the influential research has concluded that workplace friendships can hurt productivity and task performance. When employees form close bonds, they may be more inclined to make exceptions or concessions for their friends, potentially compromising organisational requirements. For example, workers may be hesitant to address performance issues with friends or may even cover up for one another’s shortcomings.

The professional and ethical conduct of an organisation’s workforce is crucial to its operational integrity. Employees are expected to faithfully execute the duties and responsibilities associated with their formal roles and positions within the organisational hierarchy. However, the development of workplace friendships can sometimes blur the boundaries between professional and personal realms, potentially leading to emotional judgments that may challenge the rationality that is fundamental to the proper functioning of formal institutions.

Workplace friendships can not only contribute to organizational ills, but also impact individual productivity. A 2010 study found that when workers are compensated based on output (piece rate), their productivity can decrease by as much as 10% when they work alongside less productive colleagues who are also their friends.

As the famous sociologist Emile Durkheim postulates, in order to maintain order, each social group creates norms that defined appropriate attitudes and behaviours. Those who violate norms face the risk of sanction. As social animals, we subconsciously alter our behaviour to conform to norms. In this case, working less hard is harmful on both the individual level (less income) and the organisation level (higher operation costs). Conforming to harming group norm is manifested at both the individual level, through diminished income, and the organizational level, through higher operational costs.

Beyond the direct impact on individual productivity, workplace friendships can also undermine between-groups performance. Employees tend to provide preferential treatment to their work friends, a phenomenon known as cronyism. From the perspective of those outside the favoured friend group, this practice is perceived as unfair, a contradiction to the presupposed meritocratic arrangement of work. Cronyism demoralises employees, leading to disengagement, such as paying only minimal effort to work. This causes a decline in overall productivity.

The Good of Workplace Friendship

So, should we conclude that all workplace friendships are bad? Just like many psychology questions, the answer is always ‘It depends’. Research suggests that the relationship between workplace friendships and productivity is more nuanced. In the aforementioned piece-rate research, it also found that when employees work alongside more productive friends, their output can increase by 10%. This indicates that the specific work environment and peer dynamics play a significant role in determining the impact of workplace friendships on productivity.

Moreover, workplace friendships are not unanimously harmful. There is empirical evidence to suggest a ‘net-zero’ impact on productivity. When taking a holistic analysis on the multivarious effects of workplace friendship, its contribution to productivity is offset by its challenges. Conversely, poor relationships with co-workers only have negative outcomes. It would be unwise to oppose workplace friendship.

Instead, the benefits of workplace friendships manifest more in the realm of employee wellbeing. Studies have shown that high-quality friendships with supervisors are associated with positive work attitudes, improved psychological well-being, lower turnover intentions, and higher job satisfaction. Similar effects are also found in friendships between employees.

These factors related to employee well-being can have far-reaching implications for organizational success, influencing factors such as absenteeism, employee retention, and overall cultural health. As such, HR professionals should consider the multifaceted nature of employee well-being, which extends beyond physical health to include organisational culture and task management.

Expivotal, a Hong Kong-based organisational psychology consultancy, has developed a comprehensive employee wellbeing survey that provides organizations with evidence-based insights and interventions to address critical aspects of employee wellness. Interested parties are encouraged to visit Expivotal’s Contact Us page to connect with our experts.

Mastering AI in the Workplace: 3 Simple Steps


In today’s dynamic workplace, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is gaining traction, offering transformative capabilities in tasks like chatbots, automation, data analysis, and decision-making. Yet, many struggle to harness AI’s full potential. Let’s uncover strategies for refining prompts, maximizing results, and unlocking the full potential of AI at work.


When to Use AI: What it is Good at

AI is a powerful tool that can be utilized in various scenarios. Understanding when and how to leverage AI’s strengths can significantly improve your work processes. For example, AI excels at tasks such as providing general information, assisting with writing, language translation, creative brainstorming, educational support, and more.

  • The value of AI lies in its ability to address specific challenges that humans may encounter. For instance:
    When faced with vague or unclear topics, AI can generate precise and focused questions to guide exploration.
  • In moments of creative block or lack of inspiration, AI can provide fresh perspectives and innovative suggestions.
  • AI can streamline time-consuming tasks like grammar corrections, proofreading, and refining writing, freeing up valuable time for other activities.

Consider the scenario of a brainstorming session. You have a topic in mind but need additional insights and direction to spark discussion and generate ideas. AI can swiftly generate many ideas and possibilities, offering quick responses to general knowledge queries, explanations, and information on diverse subjects.

However, it is important to exercise caution when using AI, especially when handling sensitive or confidential information. AI systems often rely on vast datasets, raising concerns about privacy and security. Improper handling or unauthorized access to sensitive data can result in privacy breaches and security vulnerabilities, underscoring the importance of safeguarding confidential information.

How to Use AI: Writing Prompts and Formatting

To optimize the use of AI, it is crucial to structure your prompts effectively and provide adequate context. A straightforward approach is to adhere to this specific format: context, instructions, task, and refine.

  1. Context: Provide relevant background information to help the AI understand the question.
  2. Instruction: Clearly state the desired outcome or task for the AI to perform.
  3. Task: Specify the actions or information you expect the AI to provide.
  4. Refine: Optionally ask the AI to improve its response if needed.

Here is a comparison of how the answer differs when adhering to the formatting of a prompt versus deviating from it:

A thorough overview encompasses social media usage statistics, precise metrics for gauging campaign success, real-life illustrations, and practical advice for successful social media marketing. This approach offers informative and actionable insights.

In contrast, a more generalized focus provides an overview of social media concepts without delving into specific metrics, case studies, or best practices.

How to Judge AI Answers: Correcting Objectively

While AI can offer substantial benefits, it is vital to acknowledge its limitations and evaluate AI-generated answers objectively. Some drawbacks of relying on AI include biased responses, limited understanding in decision-making, and the potential of inaccurate or misleading information to fulfill a prompt.

AI’s shortcomings stem from its non-human nature. Unlike humans, AI lacks critical thinking abilities for assessing information credibility, problem-solving, pattern recognition, and logical deduction. Furthermore, AI lacks empathy, creativity, and real-time internet access, leading to these pitfalls.

For unbiased AI assessment, use critical thinking and human judgment. Consider logical coherence, relevance, and real-world alignment of AI responses. Use strategies like cross-referencing, source verification, contextual analysis, logical reasoning, and consistency checks to address potential issues. The following case is an example:

Objective Judgment:

  1. The answer lacks specificity and depth, offering generic information applicable to various locations rather than tailored insights unique to Hong Kong’s small business landscape.
  2. The answer lacks specific examples or statistics to support its claims.


  1. Iteration: Expanding the prompt to focus on challenges faced by specific industries in Hong Kong, such as retail, hospitality, or tourism, which have been particularly impacted by the pandemic. This would provide a more detailed and tailored response.
  2. Research: Utilize the AI-generated answer as a starting point and supplement it with independent research. For instance, consider integrating real-life case studies of small businesses in Hong Kong to provide concrete examples. Additionally, explore government websites to understand the evolving regulations and support measures that small businesses must adhere to amid the pandemic.

Consider the limitations of AI and supplement its responses with your expertise and insights. Leverage the strengths of AI technology while maintaining a critical and objective perspective.


In summary, AI is a powerful tool that enhances productivity. By using AI effectively, we can unlock numerous benefits. Instead of fearing AI replacing us, we should embrace its capabilities and harness its power to augment our abilities. Incorporating AI into work processes can benefit everyone, revolutionizing how we work and thrive in the modern world.

Best Practices for Remote Work Collaboration: A Leader’s Perspective

remote work

In the rapidly evolving work landscape, remote work has become increasingly common. As leaders, it is important to understand the challenges and opportunities that come with remote work and collaboration. In this blog, we will explore the best practices for remote work collaboration from a leader’s perspective, focusing on establishing clear communication channels, fostering transparency and accountability, and encouraging frequent feedback and recognition.

remote work

Mastering Communication in a Remote World

Effective communication is the foundation of successful remote work collaboration. To ensure clear and efficient communication, leaders should consider implementing a centralized platform, such as a messaging app, video conferencing tool, or dedicated collaboration software. This facilitates regular check-ins, updates, and discussions. A study by McKinsey & Company in 2020 found that organizations using digital collaboration tools experienced a 20-25% increase in productivity. These platforms provide a space for team members to connect, share information, and collaborate effectively. Additionally, setting communication expectations is crucial. Establish guidelines for response times, availability, and preferred communication methods. Clearly communicating these expectations to the team ensures everyone is on the same page and can effectively coordinate their work.

Building Trust Through Transparency and Accountability

Transparency and accountability are essential for remote teams to function cohesively. Leaders can foster these qualities by defining clear responsibilities and roles. Distributing clear roles and work responsibilities before the start of projects enhances team efficiency and reduces conflict, as supported by research from the Journal of Business Research. With clearly defined responsibilities, remote workers will experience higher efficiency and less role-related confusion. Furthermore, clear communication practices are vital. Structured communication protocols reduce misunderstandings and enhance collaboration. A Harvard Business Review study showed that 60% of remote workers reported fewer miscommunications and better collaboration when using standardized communication practices. Providing shared access to project documents and materials ensures that team members have the necessary information to collaborate effectively, promoting transparency and seamless collaboration.

Fueling Team Spirit with Feedback and Recognition

Feedback and recognition play a vital role in remote work collaboration. Establishing regular feedback systems, both formal and informal, allows team members to share their insights, concerns, and suggestions. Research by Buffer indicated that regular virtual meetings help maintain team cohesion and communication, with 70% of remote workers feeling more connected to their teams. This feedback system promotes continuous improvement and strengthens collaboration. Additionally, fostering a culture of appreciation is important. Encouraging team members to recognize and appreciate each other’s contributions can be done through dedicated channels, such as a Slack channel, where team members can publicly acknowledge and celebrate each other’s achievements. Recognizing and rewarding excellence by implementing a system for virtual awards, bonuses, or other incentives motivates team members and reinforces a culture of collaboration and high performance.


By implementing these strategies, leaders can create a remote work environment where teams thrive, productivity remains high, and morale stays strong. Adapting to remote work requires a proactive approach from leaders. By focusing on communication, transparency, and feedback, leaders can ensure that their teams remain engaged and productive, regardless of the workplace.

Overcoming Meeting Anxiety: An Introvert’s Guide to Shining in the Workplace

Introvert work meeting

Overcoming Meeting Anxiety: An Introvert’s Guide to Shining in the Workplace

Picture this – you are in a meeting. You feel pressured to say something because it feels like the right thing to do. You want to speak up, but you need more time to process everyone’s ideas first. You’re eager to demonstrate your value to your coworkers and boss, yet you find yourself holding back. Sounds familiar? These are some of the challenges Introverts often encounter in the workplace.

Introvert work meeting

What is Introversion?

Before we dive into how introverts can navigate the workplace, let’s first explore the nature of introversion. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is arguably the most widely recognized personality assessment recently. Rooted in the principles formulated by renowned psychologist Carl Jung, the MBTI conceptualises introversion as a preference for directing one’s focus inward. As a result, introverts tend to be more introspective, drawing energy from reflecting on ideas and experiences. A key consequence of this inclination is that introverts are often drained by social interaction, and feel more inclined towards solitude.

Despite scientific evidence, the ideal worker is often portrayed as an extrovert. This perception casts introverts as disadvantaged in the workplace. However, introverts possess unique strengths that are highly valuable. Moreover, learning to develop complementary extroverted skills can also help introverts thrive in a variety of roles and environments.

The Trap of Rigid Self-Identification

Due to the popularity of MBTI, many people took the test and defined themselves according to the results. It is not uncommon nowadays to share and exchange stereotypes about MBTI as an ice-breaker. Despite the applauding social value, the proliferation of MBTI has led to a phenomenon where individuals can become overly fixated on their type, presenting themselves as static “Introverts” or “Extraverts.”

While it is great to gain a deeper understanding of oneself, curating your identity solely base on your MBTI can be unhealthy. In psychology, there is a phenomenon called cognitive rigidity. Defined as the inability to mentally adapt to new demands or information, cognitive rigidity is the product of repeated reinforcement of a belief, and resistance to change even when situational demand renders this belief ineffective. Repetitive self-labelling as an “introvert” can lead to cognitive rigidity, modelling more introverted behaviours and a reluctance to adopt beneficial extraverted skills, even when situationally appropriate.

It’s natural to avoid discomfort, especially when you feel being extroverted is inauthentic. However, as clever consumers of MBTI, we need to know that the MBTI is designed to provide insight into your natural tendencies and preferences, not to limit your potential. Rather, it highlights your strengths and points to areas for growth.

In fact, it’s important to develop the awareness that throughout the day, there are times when we all need to access more extroverted qualities for tasks that require sensing and feeling. The goal should be to enhance strengths and develop weaknesses – including cultivating extroverted skills when situationally appropriate, as no one can be 100% introverted all the time. Rigid self-identification will inhibit personal growth.

How to Become More Extroverted for Meetings?

Recognising the need to access extroverted capacities is the first step. The next challenge is putting this into practice, especially in professional settings where more extroverted behaviours may be expected or beneficial.

One common obstacle that introverts often face in the workplace is actively participating in meetings. While extroverts may be more naturally inclined to immediately voice their ideas or thoughts, introverts may not share the same propensity. Yet in many meeting environments, there can be an implicit pressure to contribute right away. Additionally, introverts tend to need more time to thoroughly process the various inputs and perspectives shared by others, which can make it appear as though they are not fully engaged. With these factors in mind, there are a few key things that introverts should consider doing before, during and after a meeting.

Before the meeting Since Introverts do not usually think on their feet, we suggest Introverts spend more time preparing for meetings. it is recommended that they spend more time preparing for meetings. This could involve requesting the meeting agenda in advance and dedicating around 30 minutes to research the topics you will be involved with, jotting down key points. If you are not accustomed to addressing a group, it does not hurt to rehearse your intended contributions a few times before the actual meeting. Research has shown that imagining the situation as vividly as possible while rehearsing is effective in reducing stress during the actual presentation. Proper preparation is often the crucial first step towards success in these situations.

During the meeting Introverts should try to be the first to speak. This is the opportunity to show your preparedness and leave a good impression. People often give dispositional attention to the information that is presented first, a phenomenon known as the “primacy effect.”. By being one of the first to contribute, you can leave the impression that you were actively participating in the meeting, reducing the chances of being perceived as disengaged. Moreover, when people recall the events of the meeting afterwards, they are more likely to remember the points you made. So even when you cannot respond to other’s input throughout the meeting because it takes more time for you to process, you avoid giving people the idea that you are daydreaming.

After the meeting Just because you may not have actively participated in back-and-forth discussions, the conversation does not necessarily need to end when the meeting concludes. The purpose of a meeting can range from disseminating information to gathering ideas and making decisions. You can still provide your thoughts and contribute to the overall performance of the team, even after the fact. In fact, a post-meeting discussion may actually align well with the personality traits of introverted individuals, as they often feel more comfortable communicating in writing. Setting personality considerations aside, revisiting an issue after a period of time can have inherent value, a phenomenon known as the “incubation effect.” As our minds unconsciously continue to process problems, better solutions or ingenious insights might arise given the time gap. Taking the initiative to document these ideas and share them with your colleagues can foster innovation and effective solutions – outcomes that are likely to work to your advantage when it comes time for performance reviews.


 In conclusion, the key for introverts to thrive in the workplace is to embrace their natural tendencies while also developing complementary extroverted skills. By preparing thoroughly for meetings, actively contributing ideas, and continuing engagement after the fact, introverted professionals can effectively showcase their value and make meaningful contributions.

Are Introverted Employees Inferior?

Introverted Employee

As an introvert, you may sometimes feel that your quieter nature is unfairly judged in the workplace. However, take heart – you are far from alone. According to a recent 2023 study, an estimated 40-50% of the workforce is identified as introverted. Introverts are, in fact, a significant presence in the modern workplace, not a minority.

Moreover, introverts bring a unique set of valuable strengths to organizations. In this article, we’ll explore the world of introversion and dispel the widespread but mistaken assumption that extroversion is the ideal trait for professional success.

Introverted Employee

What is Introversion?

The Big Five Personality traits, a prominent psychological framework, classify individuals along five key dimensions: openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism. Within this model, introversion and extraversion exist as two opposing ends of the spectrum.

Introverts are those who tend to prefer solitude, feeling fatigued by excessive social interaction and generally appearing more reserved. It may be helpful to visualise a “social battery” – introverts are those who find this battery depleted after social events, while extroverts are those who feel energised and recharged. As a result, introverts often seek solitude to restore their reserves after engaging in social activities, not because they dislike such events, but because they can find them draining.

Determining whether you fall into the introvert or extrovert category is not guesswork. There are well-validated self-report questionnaires available online that can measure your placement along the introversion-extraversion spectrum, as well as assess the other Big Five personality traits. If you are uncertain about your tendencies, investing 10 minutes to complete one of these assessments can provide valuable insight into your own personality profile.

Introverts at Work

At work, introverted individuals often prefer to operate in a solitary manner, as this is where they feel most productive. Given that introverts tend to feel drained after prolonged social interactions, working alone allows them to conserve their energy and prevent burnout. During meetings, introverted employees are more likely to remain quiet due to their reflective nature, speaking up only when they have a truly insightful contribution to make, rather than feeling compelled to be the first to voice their thoughts.

This combination of tendencies can unfortunately contribute to the facade that introverts are less capable than their extroverted counterparts. In many business settings, traits such as active social engagement, initiative-taking, and assertiveness are highly valued and rewarded. When compared to extroverts, introverts may be perceived as socially awkward and passive. The consequences of this negative evaluation are reflected in empirical research, which has found that extroverts tend to experience greater success in job applications and career advancement.

Debunking Myths of Introversion: Faulty Psychological Theory

The ideal worker is often portrayed as an extrovert, while their introverted counterparts are seen as inferior. However, is this perception truly accurate? The apparent disadvantage of embodying introverted traits stems from a faulty theoretical understanding. Recent research has supported the notion that all personality traits can shine given the right situation. Additionally, the rewards assigned to extraversion could be a culturally specific phenomenon, exhibiting extraversion might not provide an edge in East Asian environments.

The bias towards extroversion has its theoretical roots from Sigmund Freud. Freud, the most famous psychologist to have ever lived, was the first to theorise on extraversion versus introversion. He concluded that introversion is a sign of developmental immaturity and neurosis, a view that was generally agreed upon in research until the 1970s. However, contemporary works have proved many of Freud’s assertions wrong, as there is no evidence that connects introversion, developmental maturity, and neuroticism.

In the work context, extraversion only predicts high job performance for occupations that require extensive social interaction, such as managerial and sales representative roles. On the other hand, introverts have found successful careers in fields like software engineering and data analytics. Interestingly, the personality trait that has consistently predicted job performance across industries is conscientiousness – the disposition of self-control and being well-organised.

Surprisingly, there is also evidence to suggest that individuals who are high in neuroticism, and therefore have low emotional stability, are better at completing tasks. This indicates that each personality trait has its own unique strengths and that it is inaccurate to think there is a “better” personality type over another.

The key takeaway is that there is no one-size-fits-all ideal worker. Rather, the right fit between an individual’s personality traits and the demands of a particular role or occupation is what allows employees to unlock their full potential and be most productive. A strength-based approach to evaluating and assigning tasks is important, as it enables team leaders to capitalize on the diverse strengths of their employees.

The notion of the extrovert ideal worker has deep cultural roots. Psychological science has been historically Eurocentric, producing knowledge that carries inherent cultural limitations. The relationship between personality and reward is, in part, mediated by cultural influences.

Debunking Myths of Introversion: Cultural Differences

In Western individualist cultures, individuals are primarily motivated by their own personal preferences, needs, and rights. To thrive in such a society, an individual must validate and express their unique, internal attributes and goals. Attributes associated with extraversion, such as assertiveness and sociability, allow individuals to fulfil aspirational societal expectations in these individualist cultures, which are then manifested through rewards in the workplace.

In contrast, cross-cultural research has shown that Asians, on average, tend to be less extroverted than their European counterparts. A possible explanation for this difference could be that Asian cultures do not reward extroverted behaviours to the same degree as Western individualist cultures. As a result, less extroverted behaviours emerge, leading to lower overall ratings of extraversion.

This cultural difference can be attributed to the contrasting values and norms between Asian and Western societies. Rather than asserting one’s individual goals, Asian cultures tend to emphasise the importance of maintaining harmonious relationships within the social group. Traits associated with introversion, such as shyness, are often evaluated positively in Asian societies, as they are seen to indicate maturity and self-restraint.

Conversely, the same introverted traits may be viewed as immaturity and discouraged in Western individualist cultures, where the ideal is often the confident, assertive individual who actively pursues their personal aspirations. This highlights how the desirability of certain personality characteristics is heavily influenced by the cultural context.

Understanding these cross-cultural differences in the valuation of personality traits is crucial when evaluating employee performance and potential in an increasingly globalised workforce. Adopting a more culturally-sensitive and inclusive approach, rather than relying on Eurocentric norms, can help organisations unlock the diverse strengths of a diverse employee base.


As this article has highlighted, the introvert experience in the workplace is complex and often misunderstood. While the extrovert ideal persists in many Western business cultures, the reality is that introverts comprise a significant portion of the modern workforce. By fostering an inclusive environment that values diverse personality types, businesses can unlock the full potential of their entire workforce, introverts and extroverts alike.

Ultimately, the path to organisational success lies in embracing the natural diversity of human personality, not prescribing to a one-size-fits-all notion of the ideal employee.